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Paul M. Kirk, Paul F. Cannon, David W. Minter and J. ©Cambridge University Press Printed in the United Kingdom. Tarspot fungi appear on the leaves of various kinds of trees, including eucalypts and willows, but the one that we see most often - in fact it's almost impossible to find leaves without this fungal infection from midsummer onwards - is Rhytisma acerinum, the Sycamore Tarspot. Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Fascinated by Fungi, First Nature Publishing. There are two different tar spot diseases of maple, one affecting silver and red maples, caused by Rhytisma acerinum, resulting in dense, tarry spots that truly reflect the “tar” spot name (first picture below). Tar spot of maple is a common sight in Michigan. Rhytisma causing extensive defoliation on Norway maples in several central New York communities. A description is provided for Rhytisma Acerinum. Several fungi in the genus Rhytisma (most commonly Rhytisma acerinum and Rhytisma punctatum), cause tar spot. In the mid-1980s, we discovered a “new” species of a fungus in the genus . Trees growing near to industrial centres with high levels of sulphur emissions do not show any sign of these leaf-blackening fungi. Verlag Mykologia: Luzern, Switzerland. How Do I Save A Tree With Tar Spot? Most species of Rhytisma produce numerous apothecia in each stoma Ascocarps of Rhytisma acerinum overwinter in fallen, dead maple leaves. Apothecia are formed within these stroma and give rise to brown-black lesions that resemble spots of tar. A. Stalpers. Rhytisma acerinum, cause of tar-spot disease of sycamore leaves ROLAND W. S. WEBER1 & JOHN WEBSTER2 1 Lehrbereich Biotechnologie, Universität Kaiserslautern, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. Family: Rhytismataceae Fungicides, particularly copper, can be used to help with control, but since the affected trees have low economic value, this practice is rarely employed. Annals of Botany, 39: 41-75. R. puntatum causes large numbers of large spots, while R. acerinum causes fewer, larger spots. DISEASE: Causes tar spot of Acer spp. Information is included on the disease caused by the organism, its transmission, geographical distribution, and hosts. Figure 3. dasycarpi Rehm, 1913 Rhytisma pseudoplatani J.Müller Rhytisma pseudoplatani Müll.Berol. Rhytisma species are members of the Ascomycota. (If some of these mycological terms are new to you, please see our online Glossary...). Medardi, G. (2006). Visible on leaves upon trees from early summer until autumn, and thereafter of fallen leaves that gradually rot away... but not until some of the fungi have matured and their spores have been forcibly ejected from the asci. Pat O'Reilly (2016). Maple tar spot caused by Rhytisma acerinum R. acerinum is in the phylum Ascomycota and forms sterile fungal tissue, called stroma, inside the leaf tissue. Fr. Taxonomic history and synonym information on these pages is drawn from many sources but in particular from the British Mycological Society's GB Checklist of Fungi and (for basidiomycetes) on Kew's Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. Handl. Fr. Dictionary of the Fungi; CABI. The specific epithet acerinum means 'of Acers' - a reference to the fact that this fungus attacks members of the plant family Aceraceae. The flat, circular, black, tar-like stromata, which bear the apothecia within them, give the disease its name, tar spot of maple. Fr. The three fungi affecting maple are in the genus Rhytisma. DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X02002070 120 Teaching techniques for mycology: 18. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) It can be recognized by black spots on the leaves of Maple trees that have the appearance of tar (thus the common name). There are several different fungi that can cause tar leaf spot diseases. Maple leaf showing the presence of stroma of Rhytisma acerinum. Rhytisma acerinum is a plant pathogen that commonly affects sycamores and maples in late summer and autumn, causing tar spot. Fortunately, the disease is mostly cosmetic and causes little real health issues for the tree. with co-author Heather Hallen Adams Sep. 2007 Scorias spongiosa, the … Genus: Rhytisma Conidiophores are also produced during the summer months that form non-infectious conidia. 04 03 16 ciclo de vida, Rhytisma acerinum, Rhytismatales, Ascomycota (M. Piepenbring & … R. acerinum, perhaps the more common of the two, forms relatively few, large spots on leaves that it infects, whereas R. punctatum forms clusters of many smaller spots. acerinum, Xyloma gyrans Wallr., Xyloma lacrymans Wallr. Fries. Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy, Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. British Ascomycetes; Lubrecht & Cramer; ISBN: 3768205525. Collection #: PLP847_2018_175 Tar Spot of Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) Caused by Rhytisma acerinum. 1819: Nov 30, -0001 Fr. While tar spot can affect many species of maple, it is commonly reported on Norway, silver and red maples. Rhytisma is a genus of fungi in the Rhytismataceae family commonly known as 'tar spot'. Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) australe Sacc., 1911 Rhytisma acerinum var. Sordariales Chaetomiaceae Chaetomium ampullare Locale: Jackson County, Michigan. Fr., Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlinger 39: 104 (1818) [MB#196891] Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Ascomiceti d'Italia. Oct. 2007 Rhytisma acerinum and Rhytisma punctatum, two causes of Tar Spot of maple. Xyloma acerinum Pers., Xyloma acerinum Pers. Taxonomy This fungus was formerly thought to be the same as the European species and went by the name Rhytisma acerinum. Synonyms of Rhytisma acerinum include Xyloma acerinum Pers., Melasmia acerina Lév., and Rhytisma pseudoplatani Müll. (2008). Tar spot does not usually have an adverse effect on the trees' long-term health. HOSTS: Many Acer spp., particularly A. pseudoplatanus in Europe and A. rubrum in North America. Rhytisma acerinum is a plant pathogen that commonly affects sycamores and maples in late summer and autumn, causing tar spot. If you have found this information helpful, we are sure you would also find our book Fascinated by Fungi by Pat O'Reilly very useful. & Kränzlin, F. (1984). Mycologist, Volume 16, Part 3 August 2002. Apothecia are formed within these stroma and give rise to brown-black lesions that resemble spots of tar. Berol. Tar spot can be managed by removing infected leaves in the fall. The tar spot seen on maples is caused by three related fungi, Rhytisma acerinum, R. americanum and R. punctatum. Since the conidia do not appear to cause additional infections, it is uncertain as to why they are produced. R. acerinum is an Ascomycete fungus that locally infects the leaves of trees and is a biotrophic parasite. It occurs across northern and central mainland Europe as well as in North America, wherever Sycamores and their relatives grow and the air is fairly clean - this fungus is particularly sensitive to sulphur dioxide air pollution. The Tar Spot (Rhytisma acerinum) is a very common ascomycete fungus that typically grows on Celtic Maple / Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) leaves giving a prominent black spot or spots on the leaf lamina, upper and lower epidermal surfaces. Only after a winter on the ground do the spores within these asci mature, and by that time there are plenty of young sycamore leaves ready to receive them; thus the succession of this ubiquitous fungus is assured. MMA MASTERLIST - Sorted by Taxonomy Sunday, December 10, 2017 Page 1 of 86 Amoebozoa Mycetomycota Protosteliomycetes Protosteliales Ceratiomyxaceae ... Rhytisma acerinum Rhytisma andromedae Rhytisma ilicis-canadensis Rhytisma salicinum Rhytisma solidaginis Rhytisma sp. In Rhytisma acerinum and most other Rhytisma species, multiple apothecia are embedded within this stroma, while Rhytisma punctatum forms much smaller stroma, each bearing a single apothecium. Breitenbach, J. Tar spot is caused by Rhytisma acerinum and two other closely related species, R. americanum and R. punctatum. Archicarps of Rhytisma acerinum in the tissue of a maple leaf. These fungi commonly survive in leaf litter where they produce spores that lead to leaf infections. 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